Translation Chapter 22
Judas agrees to betray ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)
3 Now Shaytān had entered Judas, called Iskariot, who was one of the twelve. 4 Judas went and spoke with the chief imāms and officers of the guard (of al-Bayt ul-Muqaddas) about how he might betray ‘Īsā to them. 5They were delighted and agreed to pay money to Judas. 6 He agreed and started looking for an opportunity to deliver ‘Īsā into their hands when there was no crowd present.
Preparing the Passover meal
7 The day of Unleavened Bread arrived when the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 8 ‘Īsā sent Peter and John, saying, ‘Go and get the Passover meal ready for us to eat.’
9 They asked him, ‘Where do you want us to prepare it?’
10 He replied, ‘After you’ve entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him into the house he enters. 11 Then say to the householder, “The teacher is asking you, ‘Where is the room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’” 12 He will show you a large upstairs room, all laid out. Prepare the meal there.’
13 They went and found everything just as ‘Īsā had said to them, and they prepared the Passover meal there.
The last supper
14 When the hour came, ‘Īsā took his place at the meal along with the (twelve) Companions.15 He said to them, ‘I have desired so much to eat this Passover meal with you before I have to suffer. 16 For I tell you, I won’t eat it again until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of Allah.’
17 Then ‘Īsā took a cup, gave thanks to Allah, and said, ‘Take this and share it among yourselves. 18 For I tell you, I will not drink from the fruit of the vine from now on, until the kingdom of Allah comes.’
20 ‘Īsā did the same with the cup after the meal and said, ‘This cup is the new covenantin my blood, which is poured out for you. 21 But look! The hand of my betrayer is with mine on the table. 22 For the Son of Man will go just as it has been decided. But woe to that man who betrays him!’
23 The disciples began to discuss with each other which of them it could be who was about to do this.
Who is the greatest?
24An argument also broke out among them as to which of them should be regarded as the greatest. 25 ‘Īsā said to them, ‘The kings of the (pagan) nations lord it over them, and those who have power over people call themselves ‘benefactors’. 26 But it’s not like this with you. Instead, the greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader must be like the servant. 27 Who is the greater, the one who is reclining at the meal, or the one who is serving? Is it not the one reclining at the meal? But I am among you as one who serves.
28 You’re the ones who have stood by me in my trials. 29Just as my heavenly Fatherhas covenanted to give me a kingdom, so I covenant with you, 30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you will sit on thrones ruling the twelve tribes of the Ban-i Isrā’īl.
‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)predicts Peter’s denials
31 ‘Simon, Simon, listen! The Shaytān has demanded to sift all of you like wheat. 32 But I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith won’t fail. And when you turn back again, strengthen your brothers.’
33Simon said to him, ‘Master, I’m ready to go to prison and death with you!’
Al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)fulfils the Scriptures
‘No,’ they replied.
36 He said to them, ‘But now, if you’ve got a purse or a bag, take it with you. And if you haven’t got a sword, sell your cloak and buy one. 37 For I tell you, this Scripture must be fulfilled in me,
Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfilment.’
38 The disciples said, ‘Look Master, here are two swords.’
‘Īsā al-Masīh’s du’ā of submission to Allah
39 ‘Īsā left the city and went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives, and the disciples followed him. 40 When he arrived there, he said to them, ‘Pray that you won’t give in to temptation.’
43 An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. 44 In his anguish he prayed even more fervently, and his sweat became like drops of blood falling to the ground.
45 When he got up from du’ā, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping, worn out from distress. 46 He said to them, ‘Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray so that you won’t give in to temptation.’
The arrest of al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)
47 ‘Īsā was still speaking when a crowd appeared with the man called Judas, who was one of the twelve, leading them. He approached ‘Īsā to kiss him. 48‘Īsā said to him, ‘Judas, are you going to betray the Son of Manwith a kiss?
49 When those who were with ‘Īsā saw what was about to happen, they said, ‘Master, shall we strike with our swords?’ 50 Then one of them struck the chief imām’s servant, cutting off his right ear.
51But‘Īsā replied, ‘Stop! That’s enough!’ Then he touched the man’s ear and healed him.
52 ‘Īsā said to the chief imāms, the officers of the guard of al-Bayt ul-Muqaddas and the elders who had come for him, ‘Why have you come out with swords and clubs as if I were a violent revolutionary? 53 I was with you every day in al-Bayt ul-Muqaddas, and you didn’t arrest me. But this is your moment; this is the power of darkness!’
Peter disowns ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)
54 They seized ‘Īsā, led him away, and brought him into the house of the chief imām. Peter followed at a distance. 55 A fire was kindled in the middle of the courtyard, and Peter joined those who were sitting round it. 56A servant girl saw him there, sitting near the light. She looked at him closely and said, ‘This one was with him!’
58 A little while later, somebody else saw him and said, ‘You’re one of them!’
59 About an hour later, another person insisted, ‘This one was definitely with him – he’s a Galilean!’
60 Peter replied, ‘Brother, I don’t know what you’re talking about!’
Immediately, while he was still speaking, a cock crowed.
61 The Lord turned and looked directly at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord’s words to him, ‘Before the cock crows today, you’ll have disowned me three times.’ 62 And Peter went outside and wept bitterly.
The guards mock ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)
63 The men who were guarding ‘Īsā mocked and beat him. 64 Blindfolding him, they struck him and demanded, ‘Prophesy! Who hit you?’ 65 And they hurled many other insults at him.
‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)appears before the Jewish Ruling Council
66 When day came, the council of elders of the people, including the chief imāms and the ulemā, held a meeting, and they brought ‘Īsā in before their council. 67 They said, ‘If you are al-Masīh, then tell us.’
‘Īsā replied, ‘If I told you, you would not believe me, 68and if I asked you a question, you wouldn’t answer me. 69 But from now on, the Son of Manwill be seated at the right hand of Allah’s power.’
He replied, ‘You yourselves say that I am.’
71 They said, ‘What more testimony do we need? We have heard it ourselves from his own mouth!’
Allah had sent ten plagues on the Egyptians (Taurāt, Exodus 7:14 – 12:30, Qur’an, al-A’rāf 7:134-135). The tenth of these plagues was the death of the first-born son in every household in Egypt. To escape this judgement of Allah, the Ban-i Isrā’īl were instructed that every household should sacrifice a lamb and put some of its blood on the door frames of the house. Then, when the LORD passed through the land of Egypt striking down every first-born son, he would see the sign of the blood and pass over that house, so that the first-born son of that household would be spared.
On that night, the Ban-i Isrā’īl were to eat the lambs that had been slaughtered along with bitter herbs and unleavened bread (bread made without yeast) (Taurāt, Exodus 12:1-13).
Up to this point, Pharaoh had refused to let the Ban-i Isrā’īl leave. But after the death of every first-born son in Egypt, he now commanded the Ban-i Isrā’īl to go. In this way Allah SWT brought them out of Egypt, the land of their slavery (Taurāt, Exodus 12:31-36).
At that time, they were commanded to commemorate this event at the same time every year, eating the Passover meal on the evening of the 14thday of the first month of their calendar, and eating only unleavened bread for the following seven days (Taurāt, Exodus 12:14-20, 24-27)
(Also in 22:4, 50, 52, 54, 66, 23:10, 13). Often translated, ‘chief priests’ – this type of imām was descended from Prophet Hārūn (pbuh)and served in al-Bayt ul-Muqaddas. Their role is summarised in 1stBook of Chronicles 23:13:
Hārūn was set apart, he and his descendants for ever, to dedicate the most holy things, to offer qurbānī in the presence of the LORD, to serve him and to give blessings in his name for ever.
Al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)is here speaking of and giving a sign that his body will be broken in death, and he does this again in v20 where he speaks of his blood poured out. For further details on the martyrdom of ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)and on how the Injīl’s and the Qur’an’s teaching on this matter can be understood to be in agreement with each other, see Appendix F, ‘The Suffering and Martyrdom of ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)’ and Appendix G ‘Why did ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)Suffer and Die?’.
For more details on the meaning of covenant in the Middle East in ancient times, see Appendix D, ‘The Kingdom of Allah’ and ‘Covenant’ in the Glossary. Covenant making involved the ritual of animal sacrifice. So when Allah made a covenant with the Ban-i Isrā’īl, animals were sacrificed and their blood collected in bowls. Prophet Mūsā(pbuh)then read the covenant to the people and they promised to obey (Taurāt, Exodus 24:1-7). We then read,
Mūsā took the blood and sprinkled it on the people. He said, ‘This is the blood of the covenant that the Lordhas made with you according to all these words.’(Taurāt, Exodus 24:8).
Al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)echoes these words when he says, ‘This cup is the new covenant in my blood which is poured out for you.’
The history of the Ban-i Isrā’īl was characterised by their repeated breaking of Allah’s covenant demands. This resulted in Allah’s judgement, and eventually led to their being exiled in Babylon in the 6thCentury BC. During that time when the Ban-i Isrā’īl experienced Allah’s judgement and curse for their rebellion against him, the Prophet Jeremiah (pbuh)prophesied these words of hope:
‘The days are coming,’ declares the Lord,
‘when I will make a new covenant
with the house of Isrā’īl
and with the house of Judah.
32 It will not be like the covenant
I made with their ancestors
when I took hold of their hand
to bring them out of Egypt,
because they broke my covenant,
though I was their Master,’
declares the Lord.
33 ‘This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Isrā’īl
after that time,’ declares the Lord.
‘I will put my Taurāt within them
and write it on their hearts.
I will be their God,
and they will be my people.
34 No longer will someone teach their neighbour,
or say to a brother or sister, “Know the Lord,”
because they will all know me,
from the least of them to the greatest,’
declares the Lord.
‘For I will forgive their offences
and will remember their sins no more.’
(Book of the Prophet Jeremiah 31:31-34)
When al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)says, ‘This cup is the new covenantin my blood...’ he is claiming that he himself is the one who is fulfilling Prophet Jeremiah’s prophecy. For further discussion, see Appendix G, ‘Why did ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)suffer and die?’
(Also v42) When al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)uses the language of ‘Father’ for Allah, he is in no way saying that Allah’s fatherhood is physical or biological. Rather it is a spiritual relationship about which he is speaking. To highlight this, we have translated into English as, ‘heavenlyFather’. For more on this see Appendix B, ‘The Translation: “spiritualSon of Allah”‘.
‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)chose twelve special Companions (see 6:14-16). The number twelve was significant because it represented the twelve tribes of the Ban-i Isrā’īl, who were the covenant people of Allah SWT. In choosing twelve Companions, al-Masīh ‘Īsā(hpbuu)was signifying that he was re-making the Ban-i Isrā’īl, the covenant people of Allah, as those who follow him and his Companions. Al-Masīh ‘Īsā(hpbuu)gave these twelve a position of authority over all believers, which is the meaning of these thrones.
One of these twelve Companions was Judas Iskariot who betrayed Sayyidnā ‘Īsā (hpbuu). Judas was later replaced by another disciple named Matthias (pbuh)to make up the number twelve, see Injīl, Acts 1:12-26.
This conversation between al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)and his disciples about swords may seem puzzling, especially when we read on in v49-51, where ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)rebukes a disciple for using his sword, and also his words recorded in Injīl, Matthew 26:52, ‘Put your sword back in its place, for all who draw the sword will be destroyed by the sword.’
It is probably best to understand this conversation in the following way:
‘Īsā al-Masīh’s instruction to buy swords in v36 is intentionally ironic. Prophet ‘Īsā (hpbuu)foresees that he will be arrested as if he were a violent revolutionary or a robber, which is what actually happens in v52-53. So with heavy irony he tells the disciples to look and act the part of violent revolutionaries by carrying money bags with them and selling their cloaks in order to carry swords.
Not only does al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)foresee this happening, he also understands it as fulfilling prophecy in theBook of the ProphetIsaiah 53:12, ‘And he was counted with the lawless.’ He sees this verse as being fulfilled in the arrest that is shortly to happen.
However, the disciples miss the irony and produce two swords (v38a).
Al-Masīh ‘Īsā’s response, ‘That is enough,’ does not mean that the disciples have a sufficient number of swords, but rather, that is enough of such talk.
Drinking from a ‘cup’ was an idiom used in the Holy Books for experiencing something – usually the judgement of Allah, eg Book of the ProphetIsaiah 51:17, ‘the cup of his (Allah’s) anger’. See also, Book of the Prophet Jeremiah 25:15-16. When ‘Īsā al-Masīh (hpbuu)speaks of ‘this cup’, he is speaking of his suffering the following day.
‘Son of Man’ is a title al-Masīh ‘Īsā (hpbuu)often used for himself. His use of ‘Son of Man’ here refers to Book of the Prophet Daniel 7:13-14, where the Prophet Daniel (pbuh)recounts a vision he received from Allah:
‘In the visions of the night, I saw one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He came to the Ancient of Days (a title of Allah) and was presented before him. He was given dominion, honour and kingship; all peoples, nations and languages will serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom will never be destroyed.’
For more details, see Appendix E, ‘The Title: “the Son of Man”‘.
TheLordsaid to my Lord:
‘Sit at my right hand
until I put your enemies
as a footstool under your feet.’
For more details about Zabūr, Psalm 110:1, see the footnote for 20:43.
We have translated ‘huios tou theou’ from the original Greek as ‘spiritualSon of Allah’ to show that this is not a physical or biological son-ship, but a spiritual son-ship that is spoken of. For more discussion on this see Appendix B, ‘The Translation: “spiritualSon of Allah”‘.